Most countries have a standard set of four sizes of mattresses. While the Double size appears to be standard among English speaking countries, based on the imperial measurement of 4 ft 6 in by 6 ft 3 in, the sizes for other bed types tend to vary. The European sizes differ; they are based on the metric system.
A king-sized bed differs from the other sizes in implementation, as it is not common to have a king-sized box spring; rather, two smaller box-springs are used under a king-sized mattress. On a U.S. Standard or “Eastern” King, the boxsprings are identical in size to a Twin Extra-Long.
Modern manufacturing conventions have resulted in a limited number of standard sizes of commercial bedding for mattresses and box springs. They vary somewhat by country of origin.
Width by length. Metric sizes (Europe) rounded to nearest half decimetre; inch sizes (U.S., UK, Australia) rounded to nearest inch.
|Single, Twin||39 in × 75 in||36 in × 75 in||36 in × 75 in||36 in × 79 in|
|1 m × 1.9 m||0.9 m × 1.9 m||0.9 m × 1.9 m||0.9 m × 2 m|
|Double, Full||54 in × 75 in||54 in × 75 in||54 in × 75 in||55 in × 79 in|
|1.35 m × 1.9 m||1.35 m × 1.9 m||1.35 m × 1.9 m||1.4 m × 2 m|
|Queen||60 in × 80 in||60 in × 78 in||60 in × 80 in||63 in × 79 in|
|1.5 m × 2.05 m||1.5 m × 2 m||1.5 m × 2.05 m||1.6 m × 2 m|
|King, (Super King)||76 in × 80 in||72 in × 78 in||72 in × 80 in||71 in × 79 in|
|1.95 m × 2.05 m||1.85 m × 2 m||1.85 m × 2.05 m||1.8 m × 2 m|
The sizes in the UK, other than the Double, vary compared to the U.S. sizes, being generally smaller. The U.S. Queencorresponds to UK King and King to Super King. The European or continental basic sizes are similar to the UK but have a set length of 2 metres.
These dimensions are for the mattress—the actual bed frame will be a little bigger in order to fully encompass and support the mattress. The thickness of the mattress may vary considerably.
In some places (including China) and historically, Single referred to a bed size that was half the width of a Double, that is, approximately the width of one pillow. In nations with better nutrition (and hence larger citizens) and greater wealth, such beds have become quite rare, making a Twin bed the standard for one-person sleeping. Without another common use for the term Single and with the term Double being widely used, Single has come to be another term for a twin bed in these places. The change in terminology has been used (and perhaps promoted) by people involved in retail bed sales to be able to say to customers that a double is “only 15 inches wider than a single bed,” which is sometimes a point made to encourage customers to purchase a more expensive queen-sized bed. Note that portable cots are generally the size of original single beds.
Other U.S. sizes
- Twin Extra Long
- 39 in × 80 in (1 m × 2.05 m)
- This size is fairly popular in college dormitories.
- Three Quarter
- 48 in × 75 in (1.2 m × 1.9 m)
- This size is considered obsolete by the major manufacturers.
- Super Single
- 48 in × 84 in (1.2 m × 2.15 m)
- Olympic Queen
- 66 in × 80 in (1.7 m × 2.05 m)
- California Queen
- 60 in × 84 in (1.5 m × 2.15 m)
- Eastern King
- 76 in × 80 in (1.95 m × 2.05 m)
- This is the same as a U.S. King.
- California King
- 72 in × 84 in (1.85 m × 2.15 m)
- This is the standard king size on the West Coast of the United States, and is sometimes called the West Coast King or WC King.
Other UK sizes
- Small Single
- 30 in × 75 in (0.75 m × 1.9 m)
- Super Single
- 41 in × 75 in (1.05 m × 1.9 m)
- Three Quarter
- 48 in × 75 in (1.2 m × 1.9 m)
Other European sizes
- Extra Small Single
- 0.75 m × 2 m (29½ in × 78¾ in)
- Small Single
- 0.8 m × 2 m (31½ in × 78¾ in)
- Large Single
- 1 m × 2 m (39½ in × 78¾ in)
Other Australian sizes
- King Single
- 36 in × 80 in
Other New Zealand sizes
Types of bed
There are many varieties of bed:
- An adjustable bed is a bed that can be adjusted to a number of different positions
- An air bed uses an air-inflated mattress, sometimes connected to an electric air pump and having firmness controls.
- A bassinet is a bed specifically for newborn infants.
- A box-bed is a bed having the form of a large box with wooden roof, sides, and ends, opening in front with two sliding panels or shutters; often used in cottages in Scotland: sometimes also applied to a bed arranged so as to fold up into a box.
- A brass bed, constructed from brass or brass-plated metal.
- A bunk is a bed used in a confined space.
- A bunk bed is two or more beds one atop the other. (See also: loft bed.)
- A captain’s bed (also known as a chest bed or cabin bed) is a platform bed with drawers and storage compartments built in underneath.
- An infant’s bed (also crib or cot) is a small bed specifically for babies and infants.
- A camp bed (also cot) is a simple, temporary, portable bed used by armies and large organizations in times of crisis.
- A canopy bed is similar to a four poster bed, but the posts usually extend higher and are adorned or draped with cloth, sometimes completely enclosing the bed.
- A daybed is a couch that is used as a seat by day and as a bed by night.
- A futon is a traditional style of Japanese bed that is also available in a larger Western style.
- A four poster bed is a bed with four posts, one in each corner, that support a tester.
- A hammock is a piece of suspended fabric.
- A hospital bed is specifically designed to facilitate convalescence, traditionally in a hospital or nursing facility, but increasingly in other settings, such as a private residence. Modern hospital beds commonly have wheels to assist in moderate relocation, but they are larger and generally more permanently placed than a gurney. The hospital bed is also a common unit of measurement for the capacity of any type of inpatient medical facility, though it is just as common to shorten the term to bed in that usage.
- A Manjaa is traditional Punjabi bed made of tied ropes bordered by a wooden frame.
- A Murphy bed is a bed that can hinge into a wall or cabinet to save space.
- A pallet is a thin, lightweight mattress.
- A platform bed is a mattress resting on a solid, flat raised surface, either free-standing or part of the structure of the room.
- A sofabed is a bed that is stored inside a sofa.
- A state bed developed in Early Modern Europe from a hieratic canopy of state.
- A trundle bed or truckle bed is a bed usually stored beneath a twin bed.
- A vibrating bed is typically a coin-operated novelty bed found in a vintage motel. For a fee, the mattress vibrates for a duration of time.
- A waterbed is a bed/mattress combination where the mattress is filled with water.
- An iron bed, developed in the 1850s, is constructed of iron and steel.
Bed frames, also called bed steads, are made of wood or metal. The frame is made up of head, foot, and side rails. For heavy duty or larger frames (such as for queen- and king-sized beds), the bed frame also includes a center support rail. These rails are assembled to create a box for the mattress or mattress/box spring to sit on.
Types of bed frames are:
- platform – typically used without a box spring
- captain – has drawers beneath the frame to make use of the space between the floor and the bed frame
- waterbed – a heavy-duty frame built specifically to support the weight of the water in the mattress
Though not truly parts of a bed frame, many people include headboards, footboards, and bed rails in their definition of bed frames. Headboards and footboards can be wood or metal. They can be stained, painted, or covered in fabric or leather.
Bed rails are made of wood or metal and are attached to a headboard and footboard. Wooden slats are placed perpendicular to the bed rails to support the mattress/mattress box spring.